The Book of Enoch - The Prophet
The Book of Enoch, translated from Ethiopic by Richard Laurence, London, 1883: www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/enoch.html


The Book of Enoch is any of several works that attribute themselves to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah and son of Jared (Genesis 5:18). These works are reputedly a product of ancient Jewish literature.

Most commonly, the phrase Book of Enoch refers to 1 Enoch, which is wholly extant only in the Ethiopic language, with Aramaic fragments from Qumran and medieval Greek fragments. There are two other books named "Enoch": 2 Enoch (surviving only in Old Slavonic; Eng. trans. by R. H. Charles (1896);[1][2] and 3 Enoch (surviving in Hebrew, c. fifth-sixth century).[3] The numbering of these texts has been applied by scholars to distinguish the texts from one another. The remainder of this article deals with 1 Enoch only.

While this book today does not form part of the Canon of Scripture for most of the Christian Churches, it was quoted as a prophetic text in the New Testament (Letter of Jude with also a probable reference in I Peter 3:19,20 to Enoch 6-36, especially 21, 6; 2 Enoch 7:1-5) and by many of the early Church Fathers, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church regards it to be inspired Scripture. The currently known texts of this work are usually dated during the Second Temple period, between the fourth/third century BC and the first century AD.

The book consists of five quite distinct major sections:

The Book of the Watchers (1 Enoch 1 ? 36)
The Book of Parables of Enoch (1 Enoch 37 ? 71) (Also called the Similitudes of Enoch)
The Astronomical Book (1 Enoch 72 ? 82) (Also called the Book of the Heavenly Luminaries or Book of Luminaries. )
The Book of Dream Visions (1 Enoch 83 ? 90) (Also called the Book of Dreams)
The Epistle of Enoch (1 Enoch 91 ? 108)
The results of contemporary scholarship in 1 Enoch are well represented by the monumental Commentary published in 2001 by George W.E. Nickelsburg in the Hermeneia series.[4] The shared view[5] is that these five sections were originally independent works, themselves a product of much editorial arrangement, and were only later redacted into what we now call 1 Enoch. This view is now opposed only by a few authors who maintain the literary integrity of the Book of Enoch, one of the most recent (1990) being Wossenie Yifru.

Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, a great deal of the undercurrent to the narrative of the sections was claimed to be concerned with the era of the Maccabees and for that reason was dated during (or after) the 2nd century BC. The finding at Qumran of ancient pre-Maccabean fragments of the Book of the Watchers and the Astronomical Book has proved that this was not the case. 1 Enoch 6?11, part of the Book of Watchers, is now thought to have been the original core of that Book, around which the remainder was later added, not least because Enoch is not mentioned in it.

Only the Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the revolt of the Maccabees, can be clearly dated during Maccabean times.

The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presenting a later development of the idea of final judgement and eschatology, concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also of the evil kings of the Earth. The Book of Parables contains several references to a Messiah Son of Man, as well as messianic themes. As no fragments of this work were found at Qumran, J?zef Milik took the view that this section dates from later Christian times.[6] However, since the term "Son of Man" is a Semitic phrase, and since the Book of Daniel also refers to a Son of Man in a context of judgment, most specialists now maintain that the work is a Second Temple Jewish document, likely composed as early as the late 1st century BC or the very beginning of the 1st century AD.

As for 2 Enoch, almost all scholars that deal with this book believe it was translated into Old Church Slavonic from a Greek edition, perhaps by Saints Cyril and Methodius.

J?zef Milik has suggested that the "Book of Giants" found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls should be part of the collection, appearing after the Book of Watchers. But for various reasons, this theory has not been widely accepted.

[edit] Canonicity
This article contains Ethiopic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters.
The book is referred to, and quoted, in Jude 14-15:

And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these [men], saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.

Compare this with Enoch 1:9, translated from the Ethiopic:

And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.

The early Christian father Tertullian wrote c. 200 that the Book of Enoch had been rejected by the Jews because it contained prophecies pertaining to Christ.[7]

The Greek language text was known to, and quoted by nearly all, Church Fathers. A number of the Church Fathers thought it to be an inspired work, particularly Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Origen, Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian[citation needed], based on its quotation in Jude.

However, some later Fathers denied the canonicity of the book and some even considered the letter of Jude uncanonical because it refers to an "apocryphal" work (Cf. Gerome, Catal. Script. Eccles. 4.). By the fourth century it was mostly excluded from Christian lists of the Biblical canon, and it was omitted from the canon by most of the Christian church (the Ethiopian Orthodox Church being an exception).

Some excerpts are given by the 8th century monk George Syncellus in his chronography, which are published in August Dillmann's translation, pp. 82-86. In the 9th century it is listed as an apocryphon of the New Testament by Patriarch Nicephorus Cf. Niceph. (ed. Dindorf), I. 787.

The traditional view of the Ethiopic Orthodox Church, which reckons 1 Enoch as an inspired document, is that the Ethiopic text is the original one, written by Enoch himself. In their view the following opening sentence of Enoch is the first and oldest sentence written in any human language, since Enoch was the first to write letters:

ቃለ፡ በረከት፡ ዘሄኖክ፡ ዘከመ፡ ባረከ፡ ኅሩያነ፡ ወጻድቃነ፡ እለ፡ ሀለው፡ ይኩኑ
በዕለተ፡ ምንዳቤ፡ ለአሰስሎ፡ ኲሉ፡ እኩያን፡ ወረሲዓን።
Qāla barakat za-Hēnōk zakama bārraka ḫirūyāna wa-ṣādḳāna 'ila halaw yikūnū
baʿilata mindābē la'asaslō kʷilū 'ikūyān wa-rasīʿān
"Word of blessing of Henok, wherewith he blessed the chosen and righteous who would be alive in the day of tribulation for the removal of all wrongdoers and backsliders."
The Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim (cf. the bene Elohim, Genesis 6:1-2). The fallen angels went to Enoch to intercede on their behalf with God after he declared to them their doom. The remainder of the book describes Enoch's visit to Heaven in the form of a vision, and his revelations.

The book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies (in connection with Enoch's trip to Heaven), and some parts of the book have been speculated about[citation needed] as containing instructions for the construction of a solar declinometer (the Uriel's machine theory).

[edit] The Book of the Watchers
Dated: the work were composed in the fourth/third 3rd century BC.[10]

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